An interpreter is a program which reads and executes the source code program line by line. It does not translate the source code into machine code. Therefore, an interpreter is also called program execution environment. The designer of an interpreter goes through the source language, and makes a list of the the operations required to implement the language. For each […]
There are four ways a computer system communicate with I/O devices. Direct control Programmed I/O Interrupt driven I/O Direct memory access Direct control : Old and obsolete technique. CPU interact directly with I/O devices with the help of dedicated program. Processing is extremely slow. Programmed I/O : CPU and I/O devices communicates through ‘Device Status Register’. Sets ‘ready’ status when […]
Principle of ‘locality of reference‘ : This principle suggests that at any given time, the CPU will be accessing memory in a localized region of memory. When the instruction is found in the cache, the transaction is called a hit else a miss. When cache memory sits along side the main memory then the architecture of the cache is called […]
A CPU executes an instruction store in the main memory of the computer. An instruction usually consists of two parts: Op-code (Operation to be performed) and operands (on which operation to be performed ( can be address or data itself)). CPU clock controls the timing of each operation. The length of time taken to go through one machine operation is […]
A bus is a group of current-conducting wires over which data is transferred from one device to another. Their types are : Data bus : Transfers data Size is generally proportionate to CPU power. e.g. 64 bit CPU will have 64 bit wide bus. Generally bidirectional. Address bus : Carries the address of the device. Control bus : Carries control […]
The main components of the CPU are– control unit (CU), arithmetic nd logical unit (ALU) and a set of registers. Control Unit : Responsible for controlling the movement of data and instructions in and out of the memory and the CPU. Decodes the fetched instruction and initiates the desired operation to be performed by the ALU. Arithmetic and logical unit […]
A modern computer have four main components : Memory : Primary( is a semiconductor memory, volatile e.g. RAM) and Secondary (non-volatile auxiliary memory e.g. Hard-disk) memories. Input unit : e.g. Keyboard, mouse. Central Processing Unit (CPU). Output Unit. e.g. Monitor, Printer.
A computer is a digital machine that generates, processes, stores and transmits information. The essential design of a computer is bases on Von Neumann architecture consisting of two components – a processor and a tore connected through a communication channel. The program instructions and associated data are loaded into the store. Therefore, such a machine is also called a stored […]